Who Invented the IC?: An idea whose time had come.

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Entry in Robert Noyce’s patent notebook, January 23, 1959. Courtesy: Computer History Museum

“In many applications now it would be desirable to make multiple devices on a single piece of silicon in order to be able to make interconnections between the devices as part of the manufacturing process.”

Robert Noyce, January 23, 1959

Conception

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Conceptual model of Dummer’s integrated amplifier (1957)
Photo: Telecommunications Research Establishment

Early Integrated Devices

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RCA integrated semiconductor shift register (1957)
Photo: RCA Corporation
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Bell Labs “stepping transistor” four-stage ring counter (1955)
Photo: Bell Telephone Laboratories

Solid Circuit Semiconductor Networks

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Jack Kilby’s Phase Shift Oscillator Circuit (1958)
Photo: Christie’s Auction House
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Type 502 Bistable Multivibrator Solid Circuit (1960)
Photo: Texas Instruments

The Planar Approach

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Fairchild Semiconductor Type “F” flip-flop (1960)
Photo: Fritz Goro/Time & Life Pictures/Getty Images

References

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I photograph and write about Gardens, Nature, Travel, and the history of Silicon Valley from my home on the Monterey Peninsula in California.

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